LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply UF/IFAS in Apopka will temporarily house District staff; saves almost $400,000 You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 1. Learn the Shipment Days – Ask a sales associate which day of the week the store receives new merchandise shipments. Be sure to arrive when the store opens on those shipment days. The early shopper can score a Burberry wedge espadrille for half-price.2.Get to Know the Sales Associates – Make friends with a sales associate who shares your sense of style. On new merchandise days, go ahead and ask your favorite sales associate what they think are the best pieces in the new shipment of merchandise.3.Items Often Get Misplaced – You have to be willing to spend more time looking through all sizes instead of just your own. You can often find items in the wrong area or placed in the wrong size. Those Jimmy Choo shoes you were eyeing might end up in the wrong box.4.Ask About Ordering Your Size – If you fall in love with a pair of shoes or a dress, but the stores don’t have your size, ask a sales associate about ordering one for you.5. Be a Savvy Shopper – Understand that even though this is a discount store, the prices may not always be the best deal. By using the website ShopStyle, you can price compare an item.There are two Central Florida locations for the Nordstrom Rack at 1090 N Orlando Ave Suite 101, Winter Park, FL 32789 (Winter Park Square), and 4036 Eastgate Dr, Orlando, FL 32839 (Millenia Crossing). Did you know you can shop for Tory Burch, Kate Spade, Vince, and other high-end designers at Nordstrom Rack? They carry many of the same designers you would find at Nordstrom and is a bargain shopper’s dream. We found these tips for shopping at Nordstrom Rack over at The Krazy Coupon Lady, keep reading and then share with us all of your incredible deals. Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Florida gas prices jump 12 cents; most expensive since 2014 Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here Gov. DeSantis says new moment-of-silence law in public schools protects religious freedom TAGSDonna’s DealsNordstrom Rack Previous articlePlug into the local business community at the Apopka Business IncubatorNext articleJuneteenth: The end of slavery in the United States Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR
Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Please enter your comment! From Florida Hospital ApopkaBy now, you’re probably familiar with how insufficient sleep can harm your health. But do you know the warning signs to look for?In the right dose, sleep regenerates the body, mind, and spirit. When you don’t get enough of it, your body finds many varied ways to ring the alarm bells. Daytime grogginess is one universal symptom, but that’s only the tip of the iceberg.Sleep expert and neurologist Holly Skinner, DO, says insufficient sleep can take many forms that vary across the life-span. For example, children who are sleep deprived many actually become hyperactive or have other unwanted behaviors such as aggressive. School performance may deteriorate as well. In adults, sleep deprivation may change eating habits, mood, work performance and even pain levels.Here are 10 common signs you may be sleep deprived:You’re Sleepy During the DayThis one’s a no-brainer but bears repeating. Signs of daytime grogginess can range from yawning a lot and relying on coffee to keep you awake to “micro-sleeping” – that is, briefly nodding off without knowing it. This one’s a major reason why driving while drowsy is so dangerous.You’re Packing on PoundsInsufficient sleep hits your body with a triple whammy of metabolic effects: increased appetite, junk-food cravings, and sluggish metabolism. With less than six hours of shut-eye, your body produces less leptin – an appetite-suppressing hormone – and more ghrelin, AKA the “hunger hormone.” Meanwhile, your metabolism grinds to a crawl, interfering with your ability to burn fat and respond to insulin.Memory? What Memory?Having trouble coming up with the right word, or forgetting conversations you just had? You could be suffering from sleep deprivation. During sleep, toxic molecules get cleared from your brain, allowing it to wake up refreshed and recharged. Without it, your memory can suffer, and long-term sleep deprivation has even been linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.You Can’t Keep Up With Your EmotionsLack of sleep can make your emotions go haywire. That can mean a gamut of unusual-for-you emotional responses – from irritability to dramatic mood swings to crying at the drop of a hat. You may also be overly giddy or even depressed.Your Reaction Time Has SlowedLack of sleep impairs your brain’s speed and higher-level processing. You may find yourself reading the same sentence over and over, having delayed reaction times while driving or struggling to make decisions or solve problems. Needless to say, this can lead to serious consequences at work, at home and on the road.You’ve Become Unproductive and UnmotivatedInability to concentrate and lower productivity are two signs you might not be getting enough rest. After all, how can you focus when all you can think about is crawling back into bed?You’re Suddenly ClumsyClumsiness strikes all of us occasionally, but if you’re regularly tripping over your own feet or bumping into things, lack of sleep may be to blame. Difficulty with movement stems from slowed reaction and lack of concentration, making normally easy tasks like walking up stairs suddenly challenging.Your Stress is Through the RoofWhen it comes to sleep, stress is a vicious cycle. Not only can high stress cause insomnia and other sleep disturbances, it can be a symptom of that sleep deprivation. If you suddenly have a short fuse and spend much of your time feeling stressed, sleep deprivation could be the cause.You’re Sick All the TimeA 2015 study that tracked the sleeping patterns of 164 people found that those who slept less than six hours a night were more than four times more likely to catch a cold. That’s because during sleep your immune system produces proteins called cytokines which fight infections and inflammation. Insufficient sleep disturbs that production, leaving you vulnerable to illness.You Can’t See StraightSeeing double or squinting your eyes in order to read clearly? It may be a lack of sleep, not your vision, that’s the problem. Muscles of the eye that control focus and alignment get run down without proper rest. As a result, you may also have more headaches due to strained vision.TIPS FOR A BETTER NIGHT’S SLEEPIf the signs point to not enough rest, your sleep habits may need a little tweaking. Try these expert-tested tips to fall asleep and stay asleep.Sleep on a schedule. Try to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, including weekends. A sleep schedule helps regulate the body’s sleep-wake cycle and can help sleep come more naturally.Create a relaxing sleep environment. Take a look around your bedroom: is it an inviting, soothing place to sleep? Block obtrusive light with blackout curtains and buffer noises with a fan, white noise machine or earplugs. Set the temperature between 60 and 67 degrees. Make sure your pillows and mattress are comfortable and supportive (mattresses should generally be replaced every nine or 10 years).Power down. The type of light that emanates from devices like smartphones and laptops activate the brain, making it harder to get sleepy. Try putting your device away at least an hour before bed to give your eyes, and your brain, a rest.Exercise daily. Doctors recommend vigorous daily exercise for most people, but even light physical activity can help prepare your body for sleep.Avoid naps. If you already have trouble falling or staying asleep at night, daytime catnaps might make problems worse.Wind down & relax. A relaxing bedtime ritual and can help set the stage for sleep. Try low-energy activities like reading, meditation or light yoga.Avoid heavy meals at night. Large or spicy meals, as well as caffeine and alcohol, can disrupt sleep. Avoid eating large meals two to three hours before bed. If you’re still hungry, have a light snack 45 minutes before bed. LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply The Secrets of Sleep, Part 5 The Anatomy of Fear You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 TAGSFlorida Hospital – ApopkaSleep Previous articleWhat caused the mass shooting in Annapolis?Next articleEverything Coming to Netflix in July Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Please enter your name here
Save this picture!© Reza Najafian, M.H. Hamzehlouei+ 34Curated by Fernanda Castro Share Projects Iran Houses Year: “COPY” 2017 Architects: ReNa Design Area Area of this architecture project Photographs Area: 540 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Qorveh House / ReNa DesignSave this projectSaveQorveh House / ReNa Design Lead Architects: ArchDaily Qorveh House / ReNa Design ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/888980/qorveh-house-rena-design Clipboard Reza Najafian Construction:Mohsen NikpeyConstruction Drawings:Maryam Najafian, Ehsan Marvi, Sahar BayatStructure:Ali NaghaviMechanical:Arash FardyarElectrical:Reza BaghernejadClient:Fereshteh AbdolmalekiDesign Team:Maryam Najafian, Maryam Pourmohsen, Mina Nazmjou, Mohamad Hosein Hamzehlouei, Ojan Salimi, Zahra ForoughiCity:QorvehCountry:IranMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Reza Najafian, M.H. HamzehloueiRecommended ProductsFiber Cements / CementsRieder GroupFacade Panels – concrete skinWoodParklex International S.L.Wood cladding – FacadeEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreMetallicsStudcoWall Stop Ends – EzyCapText description provided by the architects. Qorveh house is located in 90 km from the centre of Kurdistan province in Iran. According to client’s demand, this house is designed in two separate units, a duplex residential unit and a multi-purpose independent living and working suite.Save this picture!© Reza Najafian, M.H. HamzehloueiAccordingly, with regional studies and analyzes on the typology and morphology of adjacent neighbourhoods in a new urban area, which led to the production of two-dimensional graphics with no architectural value the efforts have been devoted to exhibiting this project as a sculptural mass made of a permanent and authentic material.Save this picture!Facade ConnectionSave this picture!Mass ProcessThe rhythmic use of brick as a genuine and old material is a delightful melody, which combines with today’s aesthetics and forms a masterpiece with advanced technical details.Save this picture!© Reza Najafian, M.H. HamzehloueiSave this picture!Wall Section DetailSave this picture!© Reza Najafian, M.H. HamzehloueiProject gallerySee allShow lessCall for Entries: Domaine de Beaucastel WineryBuilt Projects & MasterplansJiezi Ancient Town Meiyi Square / Beijing Huaqing An-design ArchitectsSelected Projects Share CopyHouses•Qorveh, Iran Photographs: Reza Najafian, M.H. Hamzehlouei ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/888980/qorveh-house-rena-design Clipboard “COPY” CopyAbout this officeReNa DesignOfficeFollowProductWood#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesQorvehIranPublished on February 20, 2018Cite: “Qorveh House / ReNa Design” 20 Feb 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
The Lindt Big Egg Hunt began in London’s Covent Garden on 12 February 12, and will visit Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and Glasgow, before returning to London on March 22. Following its success in London last year, the charity Big Egg Hunt is running again but this time across five UK cities over six weeks. The tour will be raising funds for children’s charity Action for Children.Last year the event broke the Guinness World Record for the world’s biggest Easter egg hunt and generated “tens of thousands of pounds in donations” for two charities.This year it is sponsored by master chocolatier Lindt. Like last year, the event is being organised by full service fundraising agency Open Fundraising and the mobile engagement is being handled by mobile message and payments provider OpenMarket. Advertisement Photo: Charlie Clift The value of SMS in fundraising“Despite the various other mobile technologies available, SMS is still the number one method for effective engagement with people on their mobile device,” said Paul de Gregorio, Head of Mobile at Open Fundraising.www.thebigegghunt.co.ukPhoto: Ell Brown on Flickr.com Lindt Big Egg Hunt campaign uses mobile for consumer engagement in five cities Howard Lake | 21 March 2013 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 How it raises moneyThroughout the campaign, OpenMarket’s Mobile Engagement Platform is running an SMS-based daily prize draw to win a year’s supply of Lindt chocolate. You can can enter simply be sending a text message to a shortcode.Taking part in the competition is free, but participants in the Big Egg Hunt can choose to donate £3 to Action for Children directly, without entering the prize draw, by texting the word “FOOD” to 70123.The OpenMarket Mobile Engagement Platform manages incoming messages and generates automatic responses, while also administering the daily automated prize draw entry process.There are 101 giant Easter eggs hidden across all five cities and participants can join in the search for them. The eggs feature popular children’s characters as well as designs by leading artists. There is also the Humpty Dumpty egg to be found which fatures the key information needed to enter the prize draw to win a year’s supply of Lindt chocolate.Photo: Charlie Clift 108 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 Tagged with: Digital Easter Events mobile sms Technology About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Big Society Capital has released the second tranche of its £14.5 million investment commitment into Charity Bank with a further £5m injection.The first tranche of £4.5 million was invested in March 2014.Charity Bank uses savings to make loans to charities and social enterprises, and has lent over £150 million since 2002. This further investment from Big Society Capital will allow it to make more loans to social sector organisations in the coming years.Charity Bank has also announced record growth in its new loan approvals for the current financial year, with £55.8 million of new loan approvals in the first nine months of 2016, compared with £34 million for the whole of 2015.Big Society Capital’s investment is the third capital investment received by Charity Bank in the past two years. In 2015 The Mercers’ Charitable Foundation invested £1million, increasing its shareholding in Charity Bank to £1.2 million, while Barrow Cadbury Trust provided additional backing through its £250,000 investment in January this year.George Blunden, chairman of Charity Bank, said:“This investment gives us the capital we need to make loans to more social sector organisations. It provides a strong endorsement of what we do and expresses confidence in our ethos and our future. This injection of capital will enable us to build on our track record of effective and responsible lending to charities and social enterprises.” 75 total views, 1 views today Advertisement About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. Tagged with: Charity Bank Funding Melanie May | 7 October 2016 | News 76 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis7 AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis7 Big Society Capital invests further £5m in Charity Bank
Follow the news on United Kingdom April 27, 2020 Find out more “False allegations”, “falsehoods and errors”, “inaccurate article”, “don’t believe everything you read in the papers” – press freedom has come under serious threat from UK officials in recent weeks as the lockdown continues.On 22 May, The Guardian and The Daily Mirror newspapers broke stories reporting that the Prime Minister’s senior adviser, Dominic Cummings, had driven 260 miles from London to Durham with his family whilst his wife was experiencing Covid-19 symptoms in March, when the government had issued guidance that everyone must stay at home. The story dominated national news coverage for days, with further details emerging as public anger erupted over Cummings’ apparent contravention of the lockdown rules.Downing Street issued an unusual statement in response: “We will not waste our time answering a stream of false allegations about Mr Cummings from campaigning newspapers”. On 26 May – the day after Cummings held an unprecedented press conference at Downing Street to give his version of events – the hashtag “#ScumMedia” was trending on Twitter in the UK, with a high volume of accounts aggressively attacking media coverage of the Cummings story, largely focused on Sky News’ reporting.Number 10’s reaction to the latest reporting on Cummings is indicative of a worrying trend of governmental bodies’ heavy-handed responses to reporting on stories related to the Covid-19 pandemic. It has also become common for officials to echo versions of the refrain “You should not believe everything you read in the newspapers”.“We are alarmed by the UK government’s dismissal of serious public interest reporting as ‘false’ and coming from ‘campaigning newspapers’. These Trumpian tactics are only serving to fuel hostility and public distrust in media. This worrying trend is certainly not in keeping with the government’s stated commitment to champion global media freedom – and must be immediately reversed before the UK’s press freedom climate is further eroded”, said RSF UK Bureau Director Rebecca Vincent.On 19 April, an oddly detailed point-by-point reaction was posted to the Department of Health and Social Care Media Centre’s blog, disputing a widely-lauded investigation by The Sunday Times, ‘Coronavirus: 38 days when Britain sleepwalked into disaster’. The unnamed government spokesperson said the article contained a “series of falsehoods and errors” and accused The Sunday Times – a paper of record – of “actively misrepresenting” the government’s work in the early stages of the pandemic.On 15 May, Manchester Evening News politics and investigations editor Jennifer Williams was forced to defend her story on government plans to scrap a scheme to provide emergency shelter to rough sleepers, when the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government took to Twitter to accuse her of publishing an “inaccurate article”. Williams later posted that writing a story that the government could “shout at you about” makes you feel sick: “wobbly, panicky, paranoid”.Reporters are also facing restrictions in covering the government’s daily press briefings, during which the Prime Minister or another designated official provides updates to the public on the Covid-19 situation in the country. Journalists are limited to virtual participation, and their microphones are almost always cut immediately after an initial question, with follow-up questions rarely allowed – severely limiting their ability to rigorously question the presiding official.“The vigorous questioning Dominic Cummings faced in person at his Downing Street press conference was a stark contrast to what is being permitted at the daily government press briefings – and also shows that physical attendance can be managed safely. Number 10 should reinstate in-person press conferences without further delay and allow journalists to do their jobs unfettered”, said Vincent. openDemocracy has reported that its correspondent, James Cusick, a parliamentary lobby pass holder who has worked as a political journalist for decades, was told by Downing Street he would not be permitted to ask questions at government press briefings as openDemocracy was a “campaigning” organisation. Cusick’s recent reporting for openDemocracy exposed serious flaws in the government’s Covid-19 testing regime.Foreign correspondents are not permitted to take part in the daily government press briefings at all, and report facing increasing difficulties in getting access to – or information from – public officials.The UK is ranked 35th out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2020 World Press Freedom Index. February 3, 2020 Find out more United KingdomEurope – Central Asia Freedom of expression AFP Help by sharing this information Vindictive responses by governmental bodies to public interest reporting on stories related to the Covid-19 pandemic – including the latest slur of “campaigning newspapers” – and restrictions on journalists’ participation in government press briefings are fuelling a growing climate of hostility and public distrust in media in the UK. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) calls for an immediate reversal of this worrying trend before the country’s press freedom climate is further eroded. Receive email alerts United KingdomEurope – Central Asia Freedom of expression May 26, 2020 – Updated on May 27, 2020 UK: Press freedom under threat in lockdown as government dismisses reporting from “campaigning newspapers” News News April 20, 2020 Find out more UK: Adjournment of Julian Assange’s US extradition hearing considered amidst coronavirus concerns RSF_en UK: Banning of journalists from Downing Street press briefing latest worrying move by Boris Johnson’s new government RSF Index 2020: UK ranking declines following the murder of journalist Lyra McKee to go further News News Organisation
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Business Matters Ep 45 – Boyd Robinson, Annette Houston & Michael Margey Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published Facebook WhatsApp Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH Pinterest Google+ WhatsApp By News Highland – January 23, 2013 Need for issues with Mica redress scheme to be addressed raised in Seanad also Previous articleExclusion zone around site of Derry fireNext articleDoctors should be consulted before home help removed – Cllr McGarvey News Highland Twitter Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest A new study says mental health services need to be improved to tackle the rising rate of suicide among young men.According to the Young Men and Suicide Project, Ireland now has one of the highest rates of young male suicide in the EU.The report, commissioned by the Men’s Health Forum in Ireland, also points to rising levels of self-harm – and says alcohol abuse and unemployment are among the factors behind the spike in suicide rates.Lead author, Dr Noel Richardson, says many young men are falling through the cracks between support networks:[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/08noel1.mp3[/podcast] Twitter Ireland has one of the highest rates of young male suicide in the EU LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton Google+ News
Foreign/InternationalExclusion Of Religious Schools From State Scholarship Program Violates Federal Constitution : US Supreme Court Viswajith Anand1 July 2020 5:19 AMShare This – xIn a notable judgement yesterday in the case Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue ,the U.S Supreme Court reversed an earlier judgment of the Montana State Supreme Court and disregarded a “no-aid” provision promulgated by the Montana State department by finding that it is inconsistent with the Federal Constitution. The U.S.Supreme court ruled in the ratio of 5:4 in which…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIn a notable judgement yesterday in the case Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue ,the U.S Supreme Court reversed an earlier judgment of the Montana State Supreme Court and disregarded a “no-aid” provision promulgated by the Montana State department by finding that it is inconsistent with the Federal Constitution. The U.S.Supreme court ruled in the ratio of 5:4 in which chief justice Robert delivered the opinion of the court joined by Thomas, Alito, Gorsuch, and Kavanaugh, JJ., Ginsburg, J. Along with Kagan, J., and Sotomayor,J., were the judges who filed their dissenting opinions. Among the judges particularly, Breyer,J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Kagan ,J., joined as to Part I of the judgment. The Suit before the US Supreme Court was brought by mothers of three children who attend a private christian school in Montana state. The reason rendered by the parents behind their selection of that particular school is that, “it teaches the same Christian values that [they] teach at home.” The decision of the US.Supreme Court is that the no aid provision of the Montana Constitution and the Rule 1 administrative rule viciously violate the free exercise clause of the Federal Constitution. The Free Exercise clause of the Federal Constitution preserves the religious rights against discrimination. The US Supreme Court while deciding the matter had observed that the impunnged provision of the Montana Constitution is in very much against the principles laid under the federal constitution and so many judgments delivered by the Supreme Court. In Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia Inc. v. Comer, 583 U.S, the U.S.Supreme Court had held that, disqualifying otherwise eligible recipients from a public benefit “solely because of their religious character” imposes a penalty on the free exercise of religion that triggers the most exacting scrutiny. The impugned “No-aid” provision designed by the state of Montana is a visible specimen of a document that clearly avoids religious schools from the domain of pubic benefits on the sole reason of religious status. THE MONTANA SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM The Montana Legislature under the intention “to provide parental and student choice in education” had promulgated a scholarship programme for students attending private schools in the year of 2015. The attributes of the programme is that, it grands a tax credit of upto 150 USD to any taxpayer who generously donates to a participating “Student Scholarship Organisation”. The Scholarship organisation can utilise the fund generated through donations for the purpose of awarding scholarships to children fro tuition at private schools. The conditions for the Scholarship organisations are, among other requirements, it must maintain an application process for awarding the scholarships and justifiably it must exploit the 90% of all the donations received on awarding scholarship awards and equally it must comply with the state reporting and monitoring requirements. The family of the child ,who wins the scholarship under the program can use the fund at any “qualified education provider” including any private school that qualifies standard accreditation, testing and safety preconditions. Once the family decides the school of their choice, the scholarship organisation must send the fund to the concerned school and it cannot arbitrarily restrict the award to certain type of schools. The legislature of the Montana State had considered this initiative as an aspiring one and allowed a budget of 3 Million USD annually to fund the tax credits which begins in 2016. THE “NO AID” CLAUSE The “no aid” provision is part of Article X, Section 6 of the Montana Comsitituion that bars government aid to sectarian schools. And the provision states as : “Aid prohibited to sectarian schools….. The legislature , counties cities, towns, school districts, and public corporations shall not make any direct or indirect appropriation or payment from any public fund or monies, or any grant of lands or other property for any sectarian purpose or to aid any church, school, academy, seminary, college, university, or other literary or scientific institution, controlled in whole or in part by any church, sect, or denomination.” As per the Montana legislature it is mandatory that the Scholarship program must function in accordance with the “no aid” provision. Later the “Rule 1” provision promulgated by the Montana Department of Revenue also invited some criticism from all quarters . The rule 1 provision is an administrative rule act as an embargo for the families in utilising the scholarships at religious schools. The definition of “qualified education provider” had changed negatively and created a situation that rejects any school “owned or controlled in whole or part by any church, religious sect, or denomination” This was vehemently criticised by even the Attorney General of the Montana State. The objection raised by the Attorney General is that “this Administrative rule will prohibit families from using Scholarships at religious schools.” In a letter to the Department of Revenue, Montana state he marked his disagreement and advised that, “the Montana Constitution did not require excluding religious schools from the pro- gram, and if it did, it would “very likely” violate the United States Constitution by discriminating against the schools and their students.” THE MONTANA STATE SUPREME COURT’S DECISION. The petitioners in the first instance, approached the trial court for adequate remedy and the trial court had urged for “Rule 1” and held that it was based on a mistake of law. The Court further explained that, “The rule was not required by the no-aid provision, because that provision prohibits only “appropriations ” that supports religious schools, “not tax credits” “. Later in December, 2018 the Montana Supreme Court reversed the decision made by the trial court under the observation that no aid provision “broadly and strictly prohibits aid to sectarian schools.” The decision of the Montana Supreme Court is quite perplexing and it went on to hold that the ceasing of the no-aid provision demands the annulling of the entire scholarship program. The court observed that, “the program provided “no mechanism” for preventing aid from flowing to religious schools, and therefore the scholarship program could not “under any circumstance” be construed as consistent with the no-aid provision. ” So for the same reason, the tax credit is no longer convenient to maintain scholarships at either religious or secular private schools. On the aspect of pervasive use of power granted to the authority, the court is agreed with the petitioners and observed that the Department had exceeded its authority in propagating Rule 1 and explained that, ” the statute creating the scholarship program had broadly defined qualifying schools to include all private schools, including religious ones, and the Department lacked authority to “transform” that definition with and administrative rule” THE ‘FEDERAL FLAVOUR’ OF THE RELIGIOUS CLAUSES The nature of the religious clauses which is part of the First Amendment is a championing provision in terms of free and indiscriminate way of religious practices. It provides that, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment, or prohibition the free exercise thereof.” The extent of the Free Exercise Clause is not limited before any states of its laws. The Free Exercise Clause is applicable to states under Fourteen Amendment, which “Protects religious observers against unequal treatment” and against “laws that impose special disabilities” The Montana state’s no aid provision had a serious problem with the above mentioned federal stand. The no aid policy bars religious schools for obtaining public benefits on the sole ground of religious character of the schools. SOME PROMINENT OBSERVATIONS OF THE COURT The U.S.Supreme Court on a majority decision had observed that the “No aid” Clause of the Montana State is definitely discriminatory in nature and a “Strictest scrutiny” is required. The Court observed that, “Stringent standard” is not watered down but really means what it says, To satisfy it , government action “must advance interests of the highest order and must be narrowly tailored in pursuit of those interests.” The Court observed , Furthermore, we do not see how the no-aid provision pro- motes religious freedom. As noted, this Court has repeatedly upheld government programs that spend taxpayer funds on equal aid to religious observers and organisations, particularly when the link between government and religion is attenuated by private choices. A school, concerned about government involvement with its religious activities, might reasonably decide for itself not to participate in a government program. But we doubt that the school’s liberty is enhanced by eliminating any option to participate in the first place. MAJOR ARGUMENTS OF THE REVENUE DEPARTMENT The department of Revenue argued that the no aid provision is actually a facet that positively sponsors the federal Constitutional features like religious freedom.The line of argument was that , the religious freedom was unavailable due to an infringement of First Amendment rights can no way be justified by a State’s alternative views that the infringement advances religious liberty. But this view was not accepted by the Court by observing that , “the infringement here broadly burdens not only religious schools but also the families whose children attend them. The Department suggests that the no-aid provision safeguards public education by ensuring that government support is not diverted to private schools, but that interest does not justify a no-aid provision that requires only religious private schools to bear its weight. ” A major share of the arguments placed by the State Department were unconvincing before the Court, the Court had reflected its view in the following words: The Department’s argument is especially unconvincing because the infringement of religious liberty here broadly affects both religious schools and adherents. Montana’s no- aid provision imposes a categorical ban—”broadly and strictly” prohibiting “any type of aid” to religious schools. This prohibition is far more sweeping than the policy in Trinity Lutheran, which barred churches from one narrow program for play- ground resurfacing—causing “in all likelihood” only “a few extra scraped knees.” And the prohibition before us today burdens not only religious schools but also the families whose children attend or hope to attend them. Drawing on “enduring American tradition,” we have long recognised the rights of parents to direct “the religious upbringing” of their children. Wiscon- sin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 205, 213–214, 232 (1972). Many parents exercise that right by sending their children to religious schools, a choice protected by the Constitution. See Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U. S. 510, 534–535 (1925). But the no-aid provision penalises that decision by cutting families off from otherwise available benefits if they choose a religious private school rather than a secular one, and for no other reason. Another argument raised by the state departments is that the no aid provision will improve Montana’s interest in public education. They reasoned their position by arguing that, the no aid provision safeguards the public school system by ensuring that government support is not diverted to private schools. ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE – JUSTICE THOMAS’S CONCURRING VIEW. On a separate concurring view Justice Thomas has initiated a detailed discussion on the aspect of Establishment Clause and how the existing status will hinder the free exercise rights. Justice Thomas is observing that the modern and the existing view of the Establishment Claude is erronous and need some serious revisit. It observes : “Under the modern, but erroneous, view of the Establishment Clause, the government must treat all religions equally and treat religion equally to non religion. As this Court state in its first case applying the Establishment clause to the states , the government cannot “Pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another” The real understanding of the Establishment Clause gives a different perspective. In original, the Clause served only to “Protect states , and by extension their citizens, from the imposition of an established religion by the Federal Government” The modern interpretation of states role to exist totally separate from and silent on matters regarding religion to comply with the Establishment Clause is wrong. It was further observed : “Properly understood, the Establishment Clause does not prohibit States from favoring religion. They can legislate as they wish, subject only to the limitations in the State and Federal Constitutions. See Muñoz, The Original Meaning of the Establishment Clause and the Impossibility of Its Incorporation, 8 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 585, 632 (2006).” DISSENTING VIEWS Ginsburg and Kagan,JJ., had observed through their separate dissenting judgements that the Montana Supreme Courts decision is not creating any burden neither on the petitioners nor their respective religious exercise. Also Breyer with Kagan JJ., as to part I, validating their dissents through a separate judgment by observing that the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause assures ones right to practice religion. But its establishment clauses forbids government support for religion and the religious clauses have aided the nation to stay distant from religiously oriented indifference while securing liberty for those of all faith. In the judgments, it observes : The majority barely acknowledges the play-in-the-joints doctrine here. It holds that the Free Exercise Clause for- bids a State to draw any distinction between secular and religious uses of government aid to private schools that is not required by the Establishment Clause. The majority’s approach and its conclusion in this case, I fear, risk the kind of entanglement and conflict that the Religion Clauses are intended to prevent. I consequently dissent. The dissenting judgment Breyer with Kagan JJ., of is giving a positive approach towards the position held in Locke than the decision laid in Trinity Lutheran. The judgment states : “The majority finds that the school-playground case, Trinity Lutheran, and not the religious-studies case, Locke, controls here. I disagree. In my view, the program at issue here is strikingly similar to the program we upheld in Locke and importantly different from the program we found un- constitutional in Trinity Lutheran.” Justice Sotomayor ‘s dissenting view is related to the aspect that the court had overreached in its decision making and he recorded in his judgment that , “Today’s ruling is perverse. Without any need or power to do so, the Court appears to require a State to reinstate a tax-credit program that the Constitution did not demand in the first place. We once recognized that “[w]hile the Free Exercise Clause clearly prohibits the use of state action to deny the rights of free exercise to anyone, it has never meant that a majority could use the machinery of the State to practice its beliefs.” Today’s Court, by contrast, rejects the Religion Clauses’ balanced values in favor of a new theory of free exercise, and it does so only by setting aside well-established judicial constraints.”Click here to download judgment Read Judgment Next Story
kali9/iStock(HONOLULU) — At least three people were killed and several pedestrians were injured in a crash involving two pickup trucks at a busy intersection in Honolulu on Monday night, authorities said.The collision occurred around 6:10 p.m. local time at Ala Moana Boulevard and Kamakee Street in Hawaii’s capital.Three people were pronounced dead at the scene, and five others — three pedestrians and two drivers — were transported to various hospitals in serious condition, according to Honolulu Emergency Medical Services.No further information about the crash and the victims was immediately available.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.